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Artificial Head or Head and torso simulator for binaural pinna cues


Dear List,

I am searching an artificial head, or head and torso simulator for
doing experiments with binaural cues for sound source localization. It
should especially provide asymmetric pinna cues for sound localization
in the median plane.

Ideally, it would have the following properties:

- provide asymmetric pinna cues with exchangeable models, taken from
real human subjects

- provide also "average" human pinnae like the Head Acoustics HMS-II

- provide a simulation of the ear channel which permits it to do
free-field calibration for head phones

- acceptable electro-acoustical properties of course

- has a more or less realistic skin impedance

Currently, I have a little experience with two simulators made in
Oldenburg and Goettingen and the Head Acoustics HMS II.

I would ask kindly people with experience with various artificial
heads to report their experiences. We were looking for informations
about KEMAR simulators but it seems that KEMAR is not fabricated any
more, is this true?

What are the reasons that KEMAR seems to have a predominating position
in the psychoacoustic and spatial hearing community, especially in the
U.S. ?

Johannes Nix